Diamond Anatomy

Modern diamonds illustration by leon mege

Sparkle is a street name for diamond’s brilliance, dispersion and scintillation combined.
These properties depend on how the light is processed inside the stone and how it bounces back towards us.
A diamond that sparkles better excels at uniform light refraction and distribution. It has a strong contrast between areas of light reflection and absorption. It also depends on the proportion between the size of the facets and the stone’s size.

Round is the most expensive diamond cut. Choosing a fancy-shaped diamond can save you 20-30% versus a round diamond of the same size and quality.
Princess cuts and modern cushions offer the lowest per-carat price. The reason for the high yield is the way rough diamond crystal is shaped.

Not at all; both have their fans and foes.
Modern diamonds have superior scintillation, while antique cuts are best at producing a dispersion. Antique cuts were designed to respond to candlelight with an explosion of fire.

All one carat round diamonds have the approximately same size.
A serious deviation from standard proportion makes a round diamond look bad. Deep rounds called nailheads look dark and metallic. Shallow rounds are called “fisheyes,” the name speaks for itself. Unlike rounds, shallow fancy shapes can look surprisingly good when they are skillfully cut. Such stones are facing up big, sometimes twice as big as other stones of the same weight.
Fancy shaped diamonds that have a relatively shallow depth but do not look glassy beat a round diamond
Elongated ovals and pears tend to appear larger than a round diamond. However, the difference is superficial and should not be a deciding factor in stone selection.

Round diamond modern diamond cuts by leon mege

“Round” is a diamond’s shape, “brilliant” is a faceting style. Every round diamond has brilliant faceting, so round brilliant is the same as a round diamond. A round brilliant has 58 facets, 33 on the top and 25 on the bottom.

Round is not better or prettier than other diamond shapes.
DeBeers’ relentless advertising conditions us to associate the word “diamond” with the round shape.
Thanks to its eighth order of rotational symmetry, the round shape is best-suited for automated production, sorting, grading, standardization, and jewelry use. As a result, production speed takes priority over aesthetics.
In a world where diamonds became a commodity, the bestseller is always the one that appeals to the most people. The most versatile, non-engaging, and least imaginative is declared the winner to appeal to the average, esthetically challenged consumer. It is a vanilla ice cream of diamonds, bland and short on personality.
Round diamonds make up roughly 60 percent of all diamonds sold in the US. This percentage varies from state to state, for example, 73 percent in Maine vs. Louisiana’s 47 percent. It must be the weather.
Worldwide the percentage is even higher – roughly 75 percent.
For many decades Chinese and Russians living under Marxist regimes were deprived of fancy-shaped diamonds deemed to be an unnecessary luxury. Even today, they eye suspiciously any diamond that is not round.

An ideal depth percentage of a round diamond is roughly 59 to 62 percent.
Table size should ideally stay under 60 percent.
Pavilion angle is the most important metric and should be between 40 and 41 degrees. 46-48-degree angle typically gets a very high score on the Leon Mege index chart.<LINK>
The optimal crown angle is subject to personal taste. Typically 32-35 degrees is the sweet spot. The low angled crown contributes to the diamond’s marginally larger diameter. In terms of the look, we favor a steeper crown, as steep as 36 degrees.
These diamond proportions apply only to GIA-graded modern round diamonds, not other shapes or cuts.

Yes, OEC is a round brilliant. It has the same number of facets, but they are proportioned differently, resulting in a dramatically different look compared to a modern round brilliant.
Modern stones usually lack a facet on the diamond’s point called “culet,” common on Old European cut.
Like its brethren – the Antique cushion and the Asscher, OEC shows less brilliance but more dispersion or fire. It is not economically profitable to cut OEC stones today. Most of these stones come from vintage jewelry.

Round diamonds did not exist until the late 1800s. Then, one day an unknown barber in Amsterdam thought of applying the concept of a perfectly round head (every barber’s dream) to diamonds.
Using a lathe to produce a perfectly curricular diamond, he invented the “bruting machine.” But, unfortunately, the early machines caused fractures called “bearding” and bruises or “gletses” along the girdle. Faceted girdles appeared much later.
In the early 1900s, a rat race to invent the “perfect” diamond cut was fueled by the flood of South African diamonds into Europe.
The “Father” of a modern diamond cut was a Polish engineer Marcel Tolkowsky. He calculated the specifications of the new “American Standard” diamond cut. Using proprietary mathematical formulas that no one could neither understand nor repudiate, he claimed to find a perfect balance between diamond’s brilliance and fire.

The perfect diamond size for a round diamond is between 2.5 and 3 carats if you can afford it. This is the range when the size of its facets most optimal to a human eye.
Round cut diamonds have always been, and always will be, the plain vanilla ice cream of diamonds. Tastes good but lacking character. Round diamond size compensates well for its lack of personality.
However, a round diamond over five-carat starts losing its appeal. The bigger the round diamond gets, the more artificial it looks.

Cushion diamond modern cut illustration leon mege

For centuries the classic cushion was the most common diamond cut, an equivalent of a present-day round brilliant. Its rising popularity in the early 90s ignited the cushion diamond cut revival that lasts until this day.
The modern surrogates of rare classic cushions flooded the market.
Modern cuts share antique stones’ pillow-shaped outlines, but their faceting is different.
The modern cushions are not quite as elegant as the classic cuts, but they are more brilliant and affordable.

There are three distinct types of cushion cuts. GIA classifies them into “Old Miners,” Cushion brilliants,” and “Cushion modified.”
Old miners have large “chunky” facets. The other two cuts have modern-style small facets. Cushion brilliants’ facets run all the way from girdle to culet, while modified cushions’ pavilion facets stop midway resulting in a nasty bulge. The bulge adds dead weight and can interfere with the ring’s design.

The original pillow-shaped classic cushion is called “old-miner.” It is usually referred to as an “antique cushion.”
 Cushion brilliants are essentially modern round diamonds with a cushion outline. For an unknown reason, all shallow cushions are certified cushion brilliants, even those with antique faceting. A cushion brilliant is not a transitional cut between antique and modern cushions as often implied.
Modified cushions are cushioned-up radiants with rounded shoulders. Modified cushions are often affected by excessive brilliance resulting in a highly undesirable “crushed ice” look.

The majority of antique cushions sold today are new stones cut by a closely-knit family of diamond cutters in New York. On occasion, a few stones taken from old jewelry make their way into the market. However, those stones tend to have imperfect symmetry and outsized culets.
You can admire antique cushions in museum collections all over the world. Royal regalia, crowns, tiaras, necklaces are all encrusted with old miners.

High-end jewelers – Harry Winston, Graff, Leviev, Moussaieff, and others all favor the classic cushion diamond which is an antique cushion.
Antique cushions are in high demand. They do not have the dreaded “crushed ice” look typical of modern stones. Unfortunately, they are also scarce and more expensive to cut.

“Crushed ice” is the excessive brilliance without a contrast. Small facets and their arrangements are the reason behind the redundant reflections. Such stones essentially look like a piece of ice stepped on by someone. Most modified cushions have it; some cushion brilliants might have it as well.

Elongated modern cushions are essentially ovals with high shoulders. Like ovals, they can be afflicted with a bow tie, a darkened area in the middle of the stone.

You cannot go wrong with a cushion diamond set in a halo setting. A cushion cut works with all sorts of halos; smaller stones work particularly well with a double halo.
Radiant-derived modified cushions with bulging pavilions are ill-suited for solitaire or three-stone ring settings, especially those featuring pave on the basket. Modified cushions are hard to distinguish from a radiant cut when held in prongs that obscure the corners.
Cushion diamonds come in various length-to-width ratios, each suitable for a specific ring type. Cushion diamonds with a 1.5 and higher ratio are great candidates to be set East-West in a ring. Three- or five-stone rings tend to compensate for a long ratio visually stretching a stone sideways. The 1.2 to 1.4 ratio works well in a three-stone combination. Stones with a ratio less than 1.1 make excellent solitaire or a halo ring.

The ideal cushion is a myth, much like the Yeti or its North American cousin, the Sasquatch. The ideal cushion is the invention of disreputable dealers desperate to sell what should be considered an inferior product.

Modern cut diamonds oval illustration len mege

The best place to buy any diamond, including ovals, is directly from Leon Mege.
We have access to every oval diamond globally and guarantee the lowest price for any diamond you can find.

An oval diamond is an elliptical diamond with brilliant style facets. In terms of brilliance, an oval is very similar to a round cut. Oval diamonds tend to accentuate slender fingers and minimize the appearance of prominent knuckles.

In the late 1950s, a diamond merchant Lazare Kaplan pondered what to do with a pile of broken marquises. He decided to round off the tips and turn them into ovals, claiming the invention of something that already existed for centuries.
Oval diamonds were initially mistaken for poorly cut cushions and avoided. Today, it is considered one of the most beautiful diamond shapes.

The best choice for an oval diamond is a classic solitaire ring with four single prongs because the average oval diamond is 10% larger than the round cut.
A cathedral shank is the best option for an oval. It gives a ring the rigidity to withstand daily wear. The shank can be plain or pave set. Small ovals are used primarily as accent stones in necklaces and earrings. Ovals look spectacular accented with French-cut diamonds in legendary Leon Mege Mon Cheri ring style.

Wearing an oval isn’t just about the diamond. It’s about belonging to the exclusive club of the select few who dared. The oval shape signals one’s love for classic fashion and a heightened sense of individuality moderated by a devotion to tradition. It says you want to be different but not too much.

Leon Mege modern diamonds emerald cut

The emerald-cut diamond has a rectangular shape. Its straight linear facets are running parallel to its sides, and corners are truncated (clipped). A typical emerald-cut diamond has three rows of steps on both the crown and pavilion. There are 58 facets on a modern emerald cut.

Where the name “emerald cut” is coming from?
The cut is one of the oldest, its origins going back to the table cut of the 1500s. Before the 1500s, lapidaries were cutting green emerald gemstones using steps to reduce the pressure during the cutting process. In the 1920s, diamonds faceted in the same fashion (using parallel steps) became known as emerald cuts. The emerald cut diamonds exploded in popularity during the Art Deco era.

An emerald cut is known for its surprising affordability. As of March 2021, a natural three-carat emerald-cut diamond costs between $90,000 for the finest specimen and $30,000 for a decent commercial-grade stone. The price depends heavily on the number of stones available and other factors like cut or fluorescence.

An emerald cut is known for its intense fire, colorful rainbow flashes that illuminate a finely cut stone. It is one of the most elegant diamond cuts in the world.

An emerald cut’s length to width ratio is a matter of personal preference.
Emerald cuts in the 1.35 -1.4 ratio range seem to be the most common choice and work well with any engagement ring style.
Long emerald cuts of 1.5-2.0 are better suited for three- or five-stone rings.
A ratio of 1.40 to 1.50 is considered the most desirable. The longer and skinnier emeralds (1.5-1.65 ratio), and some prefer the shorter, squarer cuts (around 1.3)

The emerald-cut diamond is practical, versatile, upscale, and refined, excellent for classic and contemporary styles. Choosing an emerald-cut diamond announces to the world that you arrived and your sense of style is flawless.
It is loved by purists who love elegance, simplicity, and tradition all in one.

A good-looking emerald-cut diamond must have broad and prominent corners without chaotic reflections.
When facing up, emerald-cut diamonds are whiter compared to brilliant cuts. Emerald cuts higher than GIA K-color are entirely acceptable. Some actually prefer warmer colors for step-cut stones.
However, they are less efficient in hiding inclusions. The minimum clarity of VS1 is recommended.
Any shortcomings in emerald symmetry are clearly evident because of the geometry of step-cut facets. Any disruption in the pattern of straight parallel lines intersecting each other at predetermined angles is easily noticed even with an untrained eye. It is smart to look for a stone with a very good or, better yet, excellent symmetry.
Instead of a pointy culet, an emerald cut has a culet line called a “keel.” The keel line is recommended not to exceed the diamond width.
The keel’s length is vital because it determines the angle at which pavilion facets meet. A significant difference between the pavilion’s long and short side angles will result in a dark center.

The emerald cut is a perfect stone for a three-stone ring with trapezoids, bullets, or shields. However, the best-looking emerald cut ring ever is a five-stone ring with Balle Evassee diamonds. Balle Evassee is a combination of steep-angled traps and short bullet pentagons.
Shorter emeralds are perfect in solitaires and even surrounded by a very dainty micro pave halo.

Leon Mege radiant cut diamond modern cuts

The radiant cut was developed with the goal of combining the round cut’s brilliance with an elegant shape of the emerald cut, with 70 facets giving it a remarkable ability to retain light and spit it back in a dizzy multitude of sparkles.

The radiant- and emerald cuts share the same outline – a rectangular shape with clipped corners. However, each has a distinct type of facet.
Both cuts look entirely different despite having identical shapes.
A radiant cut is a brilliant-cut with kite- and triangular-shaped facets radiating from the center. An emerald cut is a step cut; it has rectangular- or trapezoid-shaped facets running in parallel steps to each other.
An emerald-cut sophisticated look can be attributed to its intense fire bursting through its bold geometric facets. A Radiant cut trades fire for brilliance.

Radiant cut has the ability to improve the color intensity. Fancy diamond color has three components – the hue (primary color or a combination of two or more colors), tone (color’s relative lightness or darkness ), and saturation (the color strength).
Radiant cut has a dramatic effect on the fancy colored diamond’s tone and saturation.

Pear shape diamond modern cuts leon mege

The pear shape is a unique diamond, a combination of a marquise on one end and an oval on the other. It combines the cuddly softness of a rounded outline with the dramatic exclamation of a pointy tip.

The point should face out towards the wearer’s fingertips instead of facing inward toward the wrist mimicking fingernails. By pointing outwards, the pear shape makes fingers appear slimmer.

Both shapes describe the same stone. A pear-shaped diamond has a rounded end on one side and a tapering point on the other.
A teardrop is a very elongated pear shape with a length-to-width ratio that’s significantly over 1 to 1.5.

Properly proportioned pear shape diamonds are gorgeous and considered desirable as center stones for engagement rings. In general, elongated diamonds such as a pear shape tend to look larger than a round diamond.
Pear is a less traditional choice of a diamond than, say, round or cushion. It is a unique cut and does not work for everyone. It’s a good idea to make sure that you will be enamored with it for many years to come.

The most desirable pear shape should resemble the shape of a sunflower seed with natural curves. 1.5 to 1.7 length-to-width range is the most desired ratio. However, some people prefer much shorter ratios, especially for smaller diamonds.
Poorly cut pears can look crooked and have a bow tie.
Pears with high or uneven shoulders decrease the diamond’s appeal and should be avoided.

The best ring style for a pear shape is a solitaire. The best side stones for a three-stone ring with a pear shape are baguettes and bullets. Half-moons are the absolute worst choice of side-stones for the pear shape. The pear-shaped halo is less popular. Elongated pear shape diamonds also look wonderful as drops in earrings and pendants.

A pear-shaped diamond is usually set with three or five prongs.
The pear’s tip is often set with a V-prong though a claw prong on the tip is the better option. Sometimes pears are set the old-fashioned way using two prongs on both sides of the tip. This destroys the elegance of the pear shape.

The princess cut is a modern, square, sometimes slightly rectangular, brilliant-cut stone with a large table, a low crown, and sharp corners. The princess cut has kite and triangular-shaped facets, just like a round brilliant but with all four sides cut completely straight. Princess cuts can have 58 or 80 facets since their number on the pavilion can vary.
The cut has a profusion of brilliance responsible for its jarring sparkle and shattered glass look.

The ideal length to width ratio of a princess cut is 1.00 to 1.05, 60% – 70% percent table and 65% – 75% percent depth. A lower depth and higher crown make a princess cut less appalling, albeit more expensive.
The princess is cut to maximize finished weight at beauty’s expense. As a result, most of them have wide tables, shallow crowns, and deep pavilions that conceal extra weight.
A princess cut’s pavilion facets are arranged in chevron-shaped rows. The number of rows ranges from 2 to 4. This is not unique to princess cuts; the Asscher cut also features a variable number of rows.
Ultimately, the difference in the number of rows has little effect on the look of the stone. Having more “chevrons” on the princess’s pavilion cannot improve its unfortunately revolting appearance.

The princess cut gained worldwide popularity thanks to its relatively low price and the tear-inducing blast of sparkle. As a result, the princess cut is the second most popular diamond in the world. In the US, it accounts for over 21% of all diamond sales.
Surprisingly, it’s not in New Jersey where princess cuts are most popular, but in Wyoming, with a 30% share. The princess cut is least popular in Washington, D.C., at only 11% of total sales. Commonly used in low-end jewelry, the princess cut is considered vulgar and unrefined for upscale pieces. As a result, most jewelry designers are apprehensive of using the princess cut, opting for Asschers, baguettes, and step-cut carre diamonds instead.

A popular and beautiful square brilliant – the French cut existed long before the princess cut took its place. The peak of French cut popularity was at the height of the Art Deco era. Unfortunately, it was expensive to produce as roughly a third of the diamond crystal was wasted during the cutting.
According to the market research, people clamored for a square diamond with a round cut’s brilliance. The answer was a “profile” cut that came into existence in 1961, when a London cutter Arpad Nagy sliced four sides of a round stone in an apparent fit of anger, turning it into a perfectly square brilliant with 58 facets.
In 1979, a group of Israeli cutters: Yigal Perlman, Betzalel Ambar, and Israel Itzkowitz created a similar-looking square brilliant-cut with fewer facets. Driven by the desire to create an affordable diamond cut, they gave it a shallow crown and deep pavilion. This innovation made it possible to produce two instead of one stone from a single piece of rough with very little waste.

The corners of a princess cut are extremely delicate and must be protected by prongs. The princess’ tips are prone to breaking even with regular wear. A broken tip cannot be repaired without the stone losing significant weight. It is recommended to exercise caution during daily wear or, better yet, to protect the stone by surrounding it with a halo.

Sharp corners are protected with prongs. V-prongs are marginally stronger than claw prongs but look too clumsy and metallic.
We recommend claw prongs on each of the four corners as the best way to set a princess cut. Those who say otherwise do not know what they are talking about and shall burn in a special section of hell reserved for bad jewelers.
Surprisingly, a princess cut looks natural in a bezel setting. Small princesses are often set in a channel.

It’s a good idea to protect the princess’s vulnerable corners with a halo. But, unfortunately, a square halo makes the princess cut even more revolting to look at.
So it’s ultimately best to set the princess cut in a plain classic or modern solitaire. The second best option is a three-stone ring with long tapered baguettes or a matching pair of smaller princess cut diamonds.

Marquise cut diamonds modern stones by leon mege

The marquise cut is an elongated elliptical shape with pointed ends. It generally has 56 – 58 facets, 33 on the crown and 25 on the pavilion.
There are several confusing terms for describing marquise’s parts.
The belly is the widest part of the stone; its wings are essentially what we call shoulders in ovals. Unlike an emerald cut where the keel is an elongated culet, marquise’s keel line is the edge running from point to point at the bottom of the stone. The tips are points where the two curved sides meet.
The French tip is a faceting arrangement on the stone’s end designed to improve the stone’s appearance and protect the point. The French tip is a premium feature of marquise, pear, and heart-shaped diamonds.
The marquise shape is very popular with gemstones like emeralds, rubies, and sapphires.

A beautiful slender diamond known as “navette” or “little boat” in French was renamed marquise in the 18th century because of French King Louis XIV’s indecent joke. He compared the alluring lips of his mistress, Marquise de Al Bundy modern diamonds quote by leon megePompadour, to the diamond’s shape. Thankfully, the “Sun King” didn’t get to match her other body parts to diamond shapes, or you wouldn’t want to be buying a round diamond today. So, in a sick twist, marquise diamonds became a badge of French nobility and were worn exclusively by those with a title of marquis or better.
As Al Bundy put in his eloquent speech at Speakers Corner in London: “Am I alone in hating the French? No? I thought so.”

A bow-tie is a feature of any elongated diamond, including a marquise, that has a pointed culet. The effect is caused by the variable pavilion angle that goes from steep on the long sides to the shallow on the points.
The bow tie manifests itself as a darkened area across the center of the stone that is shaped like – you guessed it – a bow tie. The ghastly effect is mitigated by skillful faceting. However, a minor bow-tie is not detrimental to the marquise’s beauty.
All marquise diamonds have a bow tie, it’s just a matter of a degree. A weak bow tie even adds contrast and character to the stone.
A marquise is thought to have an oversized presence. Of all fancy cuts, it has the largest crown combined with a shallow pavilion. All shallow and pointed cuts, including marquises, pears, ovals, princesses, and hearts, face-up bigger than other stones.

A marquise with rounded tips is lovingly called “a moval,” a combination of two words, marquise and oval. They are typically antique stones featuring large elongated culets. Movals are very beautiful but extremely rare.
Navette is an old-fashioned name for a marquise diamond.

The optimal length-to-width ratio of a marquise cut is hovering around 1:2. The ideal depth is commonly quoted to be between 55% to 65%. However, deeper or shallower stones are lovely when skillfully cut. The size, position, and the number of facets are essential for a marquise’s beauty.
A marquise-cut diamond must be absolutely symmetrical. The marquise cut points should be perfectly aligned, and both sides should have a gentle arc without breaking point. Your jeweler should be able to calculate the ideal radius of the curvature with the simple formula κ= dT/dS where T is the tangent and S is the arc length, or by using the vector function
k= f ′′ (x)| / (1+ [ f ′ (x)]2)3/2

A marquise diamond’s pointed tips can snag and chip, so they should be protected by prongs.
The marquise cut is unique because it requires only two prongs to secure the stone safely. Except for very large stones, marquises are set with two prongs, one on each tip. Marquises can be set with V-prongs to emphasize their pointed tips and differentiate them from ovals.

Any diamond will compliment you, including the marquise, because you are beautiful.
Contrary to popular belief, fingers are not getting any longer if you are wearing a marquise.
The marquise cut, just like any other elongated shape, emphasizes naturally long fingers, drawing attention to their alien-like proportions. Small marquises actually make fingers look shorter.

Marquise diamonds look best when used as accent stones in clusters, often in combination with pear shapes and rounds. The leaf-like shape of marquises and pears makes them popular in stylized garlands and floral motifs.
Using marquises as the ring’s center stone makes sense only when the stone is fairly large. The best way to set a marquise diamond in a ring is as a solitaire with six prongs. In a three-stone ring, the center stone looks good flanked by skinny half-moons, bullets, and tapered baguettes.
Very long marquises set East-West across the finger are stunning.

Leon Mege heart shape diamonds modern cuts

The heart-shaped diamond dates back to the late 1400s when this cut was considered a symbol of royalty. In a conversation with diplomat Nicodemo Tranchedini, Duke Galeazzo Maria Sforza compared the Medici dynasty to a heart-shaped diamond. Huh? The record keeper must have failed to mention the amount of alcohol consumed before he made that statement.

In 1562, Queen Elizabeth I received a heart-shaped diamond ring from her greatest rival, Mary Queen of Scots, in a gesture of peace and sisterly love. They spent the rest of the time plotting to kill each other.

French Cardinal de Richelieu, the Three Musketeers’ villain, owned a 20-carat heart-shaped diamond given to him as a bribe. In those days, men of power were not afraid to wear their hearts on their sleeves.

In 1972, Richard Burton gave Elizabeth Taylor a heart-shaped diamond with the words “Love Is Everlasting” scratched on its face in Parsi. The historic portrait diamond was set by Cartier into a pendant and bravely survived the slippery decolletage of the aging star into the 21st century.

The world’s most famous heart-shaped diamonds include a 30.82 carat fancy blue stone found around 1909 and initially owned by Cartier. It is called The Blue Heart. Another well-known diamond is the Heart of Eternity, a 27.64-carat Fancy Vivid Blue diamond unveiled by De Beers in 2000. The iconic 115.34-carat black Gruosi diamond is the fifth-largest faceted black diamond in the world.

Heart-shaped diamonds look best with a ratio of 1:1. Hearts outside of this ratio look stretched or squeezed. The heart shape has 56 to 58 facets typically, including 6 to 8 main pavilion facets. The table size is important since it has an impact on the overall brilliance and sparkle. The most desirable table is between 56 to 62 percent. The total depth should range between 56 to 66 percent.

The best heart-shaped diamonds have perfectly symmetrical lobes. The cleft (the inward-facing incision) must be crisp and smooth, with natural and even curvature. The pointed tip should divide the heart into two identical halves. A heart shape should be large enough to show off its shape as it can otherwise be mistaken for a pear cut.

The heart-shaped diamonds are usually set with three or five prongs. The tip is protected with a V-prong or a claw prong. Small hearts always have three prongs. We don’t recommend bezel settings. Diamond’s point should face towards the fingertips.

The heart-shaped diamond is the most romantic of all diamond cuts, so it’s a popular option for engagement rings and anniversary jewelry. Heart-shaped diamonds look best as solitaires and are also lovely when flanked by two smaller round brilliants. While this shape is considered tacky in the West, it’s very trendy in Asia.

The worldwide use of the heart symbol in art, cardiology, card decks, and silly Valentines turned it into one of the most popular non-geometric shapes, second only to the cross.

The heart was known as the vessel of love and the source of life since the time of the Pharaohs. The heart was the only organ to remain intact during mummification for use in rebirth.

The symbol representing the organ changed gradually over the course of history. Historians speculate that our symbol of love and affection evolved from depictions of buttocks, breasts, testicles, and even pubic mounds. Anything associated with reproduction is suspect, like the silphium seedpods used as a form of birth control in antiquity.

In Buddhism, the heart shape became the symbol of enlightenment rather than love. We want to think that our ancestors were inspired by something more cultivated than a set of reproductive organs, maybe a pair of swans bumping heads. After all, swans are monogamous.

Leon Mege radiant cut diamond modern cuts

leon mege gia diamond certification

We offer only GIA-certified diamonds. Diamonds certified by other labs must be recertified to determine their real color/clarity grade.

Color and clarity determine a diamond’s value only if it’s a grade assigned by the GIA.

There is no government-mandated standard for diamond grading. Primitive trade jargon of the past gave way to a universally accepted grading system developed by the GIA. Letters from D to Z are assigned to color grades. Clarity grades are grouped into several tiers with abbreviated names – FL, VVS, VS, SI, and I. However, the standards by which the grades are decided do vary from lab to lab.

For example, a diamond that the GIA grades as a G-color could be graded as an E-color stone at a different lab. The astronomical price difference between each color/clarity grade makes it very tempting for a crooked jeweler to certify a diamond at a gem lab other than the GIA. The inflated color/clarity grade allows the misrepresentation of a diamonds’ value without any legal repercussions.

There are a few reputable gemological labs besides the GIA. However, the GIA is considered to be the gold standard for diamond grading. Any reputable jeweler or dealer will attest to that.


The GIA is a giant of the gem world. Over 90% of diamonds are graded by its labs, which are spread all over the world. GIA grades set the standard by which all other labs attempt to operate. The GIA provides the only certification taken at its face value by members of the diamond trade.


Buying a diamond that is not accompanied by a GIA certificate is a serious mistake. You can quickly learn the importance of a GIA certificate when you need to liquidate your stone. A non-GIA certificate or, even worse, an “in-house” appraisal provided by the jeweler who sold you the stone is worthless and not accepted at face value.

Currently, GIA offers four types of reports:

  • Full Diamond Grading Report for loose, D-to-Z color diamonds weighing 0.15 carats or more.
  • Diamond Dossier® for loose, D-to-Z color diamonds weighing 0.15 -1.99 carats.
  • Diamond eReport Online for loose D-to-Z color diamonds weighing 0.15 -2.99 carats.
  • Diamond Focus™ Report online for select loose diamonds under 0.40 carats.

There are many compelling reasons to choose a GIA stone :

  • It’s universal acceptance.
  • Easy to compare, simple to understand the grading system.
  • Diamond list price is based on a GIA grade.
  • Ability to view and download a certificate online.
  • Established reputable retailers sell only GIA-graded diamonds.

Trying to sell a stone without a GIA certificate will result in substantial monetary loss. The GIA is not just a gem lab. It’s a research center, as well as an educational institution. The GIA’s diploma program offers the most respected gemological degree in the world. For the sake of full disclosure, Maestro Mege graduated from the Gemological Institute of America in 1991 with a Graduate Gemologist degree, and he is a member of the GIA Alumni Association.


EGL’s certificate is not worth the paper it’s printed on. The lab lost all of its credibility a long time ago. The stones graded by EGL are banned from trading networks.


An experiment conducted in 2008 resulted in EGL grading a one-carat K/SI1 diamond as G/VS1, a difference of more than 50% in value. Both the GIA and IGI had the diamond graded as K/SI1.


The American Gem Society was founded in 1934 as a trade group of jewelers, appraisers, and dealers. However, it was not until 1996 AGS started to grade diamonds that they omit from all official publications using 1934 instead. AGS bills itself as an established lab, but they are far from it.


AGS’s lax grading standards are despicable. They are neither reliable nor consistent. A diamond graded as G by AGS is likely to be an I-color by the GIA standards. Some vendors actively exploit the resulting over-grading to increase their profit margin. A network of online trolls and fake bloggers are allegedly getting kickbacks for aggressively promoting the virtues of AGS stones. 

More about the ASET scam by AGS exposed by Leon Mege. The ASET is a gizmo most professionals have never even heard of. Pure marketing with zero substance. An AGS grading report itself is designed to deceit. It shows the GIA grading scale, which falsely implies that the grades are compatible. They are certainly not.


HRD strictly adheres to GIA grading standards. In most cases, an HRD grade is considered to be a GIA equivalent. This well-respected and reliable lab is run by the Antwerp World Diamond Center and is located in Antwerp. They also follow grading rules set by the International Diamond Council.

HRD grading reports have an exclusive security feature – microprint visible only in UV light, protecting it from counterfeits.


The International Gemological Institute was established in 1975 in Antwerp. It has a relatively small impact on the diamond industry, particularly in the USA. Its certification is not overly reliable. However, IGI got an early start on grading lab-grown diamonds. The IGI certificate currently accompanies most lab-grown diamonds.


GCAL was founded in 2001 in New York City. Since their share of certificates in the marketplace is negligible, there is no reliable data on their ability to grade stones according to universally accepted standards.


CGL turned out to be not Ceylon Gem Laboratory, not Colorado Genetics Laboratory, and not even Chanthaburi Gemological Laboratory. It’s Central Gem Laboratory Co., Ltd., located in Japan. The lab is hardly known outside of Japan. They do offer an online certificate check.


Gemological Science International is an innovative lab with offices in India, Africa, and the US. Unfortunately, the only innovation is their VirtualVault™ or, in simple terms, a one-time fee of $35 for the right to access a picture of your certificate online.


Gem Studies Laboratory, established in 1985 in Sydney, Australia.

The rest of the gem labs on this list are better described as appraisal services with better equipment. The value of these diamond certificates is zero, just like those in-house certificates issued by jewelry stores themselves.

Is fluorescence good or bad?

If you know nothing about fluorescence, it is safe to assume that a fluorescent diamond is a bad choice. The reality is a little more complicated. If you do not care about the “resale” value, a fluorescent diamond without haziness associated with strong fluorescence is an excellent buy. The problem is that the ill effect of fluorescence is often elusive and not always obvious. With certain diamonds, fluorescence is even considered marginally beneficial.

Why do diamonds glow?

Up to 35% of all diamonds in the world emit a glow when subjected to ultraviolet light. This glow is called fluorescence.

When we refer to stone’s fluorescence, we mean medium to very strong fluorescence. Faint fluorescence is not considered detrimental to the diamond’s value.

diamond flourescence Leon Mege

There is little science to back up claims that fluorescent diamonds are inferior stones. Fluorescence commonly occurs in only 25-35% of all diamonds. According to GIA, fewer than 0.2% of the fluorescent diamonds appear “hazy or oily,” so the ill effect is infrequent.

A fluorescent stone is the cashmere sweater with the red dot of the diamond world – the regret lingers long after the joy of getting a bargain is forgotten.

What is fluorescence?

Fluorescence is an ability of a diamond to emit a glow when subjected to ultraviolet light, just like Fido’s stains do. According to GIA research, up to 35% of all diamonds in the world fluoresce. Fluorescence intensity depends on the UV light strength and ambiance lighting. Disco lighting, fluorescent bulbs, and natural sunlight all have a UV component that triggers the glow.

According to GIA, fewer than 0.2% of the fluorescent diamonds are “hazy or oily” due to the fluorescence, so that phenomenon is infrequent. The fluorescence grade “Negligible” used by AGS (but who cares what AGS calls it, GIA is the gold standard) is the same as “None” by GIA. It refers to diamonds that refuse to glow under the blacklight.

Is there any good reason to buy a fluorescent stone?

Strong blue fluorescence is thought to enhance a diamond’s appearance in the I to K color range, but this is highly debatable. Because diamonds with strong fluorescence are sold at a steep discount, even crystal-clear ones, you get a bargain.

Buy a fluorescent stone when:

  • You can’t afford the diamond you want
  • It is the only option available
  • You are mesmerized by the glow effect
  • The center stone is I-J color as graded by GIA
  • The stone is tiny
  • The stone is not certified
  • You believe in the magical properties of fluorescent diamonds.

In countries like Vietnam, Malaysia, and Indonesia, near colorless to faint yellow diamonds with fluorescence are more desirable.

Types of diamonds illustration
Just like a blood type for humans, diamonds have four distinct groups based on their crystalline structure. Type II stones are the rarest and sought after by connoisseurs and collectors.

Type Ia – diamonds contain clusters of Nitrogen atoms throughout the crystal structure. Those stones usually display some degree of yellow color. Nothing to write home about.

Type Ib – diamonds contain only Nitrogen atoms. These stones are 0.1% of all diamonds with an intense orange, brown, and sometimes green color.

Type IIa –  Type II diamonds have no measurable impurities lack Nitrogen in their crystal structure. They represent less than 2% of all-natural diamonds and are the most valuable. They are characteristically colorless, transparent, and exceptionally white. Colorless IIa diamonds are typically traced to the Golconda mine in India.  Many famous diamonds are classified as Type IIa including the Cullinan Diamond and Koh-i-Noor Diamond. Fancy-colored type IIa diamonds could be pink or purple.

Type IIb – diamonds contain traces of Boron within the crystal. They are those blue or blue/gray diamonds everyone is craving to collect. They represent only 0.1% of diamonds.

  • Type Ia encompasses roughly 98% of natural diamonds. They all have detectable traces of Nitrogen atom clusters. They are the most common type – 98% of all-natural diamonds.
  • Type IIa and Type IIb stones are rare and usually sought after by connoisseurs and collectors.
  • Are all D Flawless diamonds type IIa? Not necessarily, but most likely.
Diamond types type ! and type !! diamonds
India Diamond mines Golconda illustration by Leon Mege

Golconda Diamonds

Two thousand years before diamonds were discovered in Brazil and South Africa, the only source of diamonds in the world came from the Indian mines of Golconda. These famous mines are located near present-day Hyderabad and were named for the 14th-century Indian sultanate.

The “Golconda” designation suggests that the stone’s origin can be traced to the historic mine. However, by the beginning of the 18th century, the mine had exhausted its supply of raw gems.


A disproportionate number of the world’s most famous diamonds came from Golconda; some of them are:

  • The 105.6 carats (186 carats before a butchered attempt at re-cutting in 1852) Koh I Noor diamond adorning the Queen Mary’s crown during her 1911 coronation;
  • The  410 carat Regent diamond – one of the last large diamonds to be found in India;
  • The 70 carat Idol’s Eye, once paid in ransom by the sultan of Kashmir for the release of Princess Rashidah;
  • The 32 carats Agra once adorned the Mughal emperor Babur’s turban;
  • The 31 carats Wittelsbach, pawned to King Philip IV of Spain for the dowry of the Infanta Margarita Teresa

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